拒絕麥氏道德標準

By Rick Boxx

幾年前,我們請麥可.法蘭西斯(Michael Franzese)來當我們的講員。法蘭西斯做了九年牢,他告訴我們他坐牢是因為遵守了道德標準,但是不是一般人說的道德標準,也不是一般社會認可的道德標準,而是他自己認為的道德標準。

麥可是一個惡名昭彰的前黑手黨成員。直到良心發現之前,他都一直遵守著「麥氏主義」的道德標準。Niccolo Machiavelli是一個義大利籍的文藝復興歷史學家、哲學家和作家(註1)。他的姓氏衍生出一個負面的名詞-麥氏主義(Machiavellianism註2),因為在他的書「王子」(The Prince)當中,有一個無良的政客,他的道德標準就是為了自己的利益和攫取他自己的好處,做任何事都是可以被接受的。

麥可一直以來都是用這樣的道德標準來合理化自己錯誤的行為,直到他遇見耶穌基督並悔改了。

不幸的是,在商界和職場,我們看到很多類似的想法和行為。在今天的商學院,你可以學到很多東西,但是有一件事情你不能學,就是「為了自己的利益和攫取,任何事都是可以被接受的。」就像在聖經的士師記21章25節提到古代的以色列說: 「 那時,以色列中沒有王,各人任意而行。」

雖然我們現在很少聽到「麥氏主義」這個詞,但是工商界的大師以前倒是常提到「情境倫理」,意思是說在為了達成你的目標為前提下,去作出最適合當時狀況的方法。這個世界其實沒有很大的改變,很多在工商界的人還是認為誠實和正直只是達成自己目標的手段之一。

你想過為什麼幾乎每天都會在新聞報導上看到大規模違反職業倫理的事件嗎?即便是一些全球頂尖、名聲很好的企業或公司,也不能倖免。如果沒有可接受的道德標準,每個人就可以任意而行,做他們自己認為對的事。這就是為什麼歷久彌新的聖經要給我們一些可靠的準則:

錯誤的行為帶來懲罰。如法蘭西斯發現的,合理化自己認為對的行為,並不能逃過最終的後果。”有一條路,人以為正,至終成為死亡之路。」(箴言14章12節)。「以虛謊而得的食物,人覺甘甜;但後來,他的口必充滿塵沙。”」(箴言20章17節)

神是最終的準則。現代的年輕人被教導:世界上沒有絕對的事,所有的標準都是相對的,只要他們不批評別人,別人也不會批評他們。想像一下,如果我們的社區充滿麥氏主義者,很快地就知道上面的教導是錯的。

誠實和正直給我們安全感。如果我們做生意的時候,總是努力保持誠實,隱藏和欺騙就沒有必要了。”「正直人的純正必引導自己;奸詐人的乖僻必毀滅自己。」(箴言11章3節)

本文版權為正直資源中心(Integrity Resource Center, Inc.)所有。本文獲得授權改編自瑞克.博克思的正直時刻Integrity Moments with Rich Boxx」。這系列的文章是以一個基督徒的觀點評論職場的正直議題。

註1: 尼可洛·迪貝爾納多·代·馬基維利(義大利語:Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli,1469年5月3日-1527年6月21日)是義大利哲學家歷史學家政治家外交官。參考資料維基百科: https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%B0%BC%E7%A7%91%E6%B4%9B%C2%B7%E9%A9%AC%E5%9F%BA%E9%9B%85%E5%BC%97%E5%88%A9

註2: 馬基雅維利主義(Machiavellian)通常意義上,馬基雅維利主義在中國是個貶義詞,象徵了政治鬥爭的骯髒和為達到成功的不擇手段,因此馬基雅維利本人也通常被當作是個政治陰謀家和權術家。資料可參考MBA智庫百科http://wiki.mbalib.com/zh-tw/%E9%A9%AC%E5%9F%BA%E9%9B%85%E7%BB%B4%E5%88%A9%E4%B8%BB%E4%B9%89

省思與問題討論

你遵行的道德標準是甚麼?你要如何做到?

你聽過麥氏主義這個名詞嗎?你知道有那位經營者是用類似的概念在經營他的公司嗎?如果有,你的觀察最後的結果是甚麼?

作者認為「只要達成目標,所有的事情都可以接受的」這種看法是錯誤的,你同意嗎?請分享你的看法。

如果你看到別人採用這樣的概念而成功時,你的反應如何?

備註: 如果你手上有聖經,希望知道更多關於這個主題的經文,請參考:出埃及記20章15-17節;箴言11章1節、12章19節、22節、20章10節、23節;21章6節、 29章4節、10節;雅各書1章8節。

REJECTING THE MACHIAVELLIAN WAY

By Rick Boxx

Years ago, we hosted Michael Franzese as one of our event speakers. Franzese, who spent nine years in prison, explained his incarceration was the consequence of following a code of ethics. Not someone else”s code of ethics, or a society”s code of ethics, but his own, personally adopted code of ethics. 


As a former member of the notorious Mafia crime syndicate, Michael believed in, and followed, the Machiavellian code of ethics until his spiritual conversion. Niccolo Machiavelli was an Italian Renaissance historian, philosopher and writer. His last name spawned the negative term, “Machiavellianism.” In Machiavelli”s book, The Prince, this characterized highly unscrupulous politicians. He essentially taught that anything is acceptable for pursuing self-interest and personal gain.
 


This was the same perspective Franzese used to justify his actions before his life-changing encounter with Jesus Christ. If victimized by his crimes, however, I doubt you would have had an appreciation for his personalized code of ethics or how he rationalized the wrongful deeds for which he later repented.
 


Sadly, we see similar beliefs and behavior in much of the business and professional world. You can learn a lot of things in today”s business schools, but one thing you cannot learn is a universally agreed-upon code of ethics. It”s almost like in the days of ancient Israel, referred to in Judges 21:25 – In those days there was no king in Israel; everyone did what was right in his own eyes.”

Although we do not hear the term as much these days, business gurus used to speak of “situational ethics,” meaning to do whatever seemed appropriate at the moment for whatever goal or objective you desired to accomplish. Not much has changed today. Many people in the marketplace believe honesty and integrity are necessary only when it is expedient and serves their purposes.

Is it any wonder that almost daily we hear or read news reports of gross ethical violations even at the top levels of some of our world”s most prestigious businesses and corporations? Without accepted standards for behavior and practice, everyone feels free to do what seems right in their own eyes. This is why the timeless teachings and truths of the Bible provide the most reliable guidelines:

Wrongdoing will be punished. As Franzese discovered, believing one”s actions are justified does not give protection from consequences. “There is a way which seems right to a man, but its end is the way of death”
(Proverbs 14:12). “Food gained by fraud tastes sweet to a man, but he ends up with a mouth full of gravel” (Proverbs 20:17).

God presents the ultimate standard. Our young people are being trained that truth is relative, that they should not judge others – and that others should not judge them. If we imagine communities filled with Machiavellians, we quickly see the flaw in that logic. “Honest scales and balances are from the Lord; all the weights in the bag are of his making” (Proverbs 16:11).

Honesty and integrity provide security. If we strive to be honest in all our dealings, there is no need to conceal deceptions. “The integrity of the upright guides them, but the unfaithful are destroyed by their duplicity” (Proverbs 11:3).

Copyright 2017, Integrity Resource Center, Inc. Adapted with permission from "Integrity Moments with Rick Boxx," a commentary on issues of integrity in the workplace from a Christian perspective. To learn more about Integrity Resource Center or to sign up for Rick”s daily Integrity Moments, visitwww.integrityresource.org. His new book, Unconventional Business, provides “Five Keys to Growing a Business God”s Way.”

Reflection/Discussion Questions

What code of ethics do you follow? How did you arrive at it? Are you familiar with the writings or thinking of Machiavelli? Do you know of anyone who has conducted himself or herself in business using a similar philosophy? If so, in your observations, what has been the result? Do you agree with the conclusion that it is wrong to operate according to the belief that anything is acceptable for pursuing self-interest and personal gain? Why or why not? If we see others succeeding according to such a philosophy, how are we to respond?

NOTE: If you have a Bible and would like to read more about this subject, consider the following passages: Exodus 20:15-17; Proverbs 11:1, 12:19,22, 20:10,23, 21:6, 29:4,10; James 1:8

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