職場自治

丹尼爾.平克的新書「驅動」提出了一個在職場自治的觀點。他把自治定義為「按照自己的選擇去行動」。為了証明他的論點,他強調康乃爾大學研究了320個小型企業。

在這所大學研究的這些公司裡,有一半的公司讓他們的員工有自治權,而另一半公司則靠從上而下的指示,主管做出明確的執行指示,且給員工很少自由。根據這項研究,那些員工有自治權的公司成長率比掌控型的公司高四倍。此外,鼓勵自治之公司的員工更換率只有高度掌控公司的三分之一。

這些發現應該不會讓我們驚訝,因為這反映出我們是如何被造的。

在聖經中,我們看到上帝原來在職場就是設定要自治。創世記1章26節說:「神說:我們要照著我們的形像、按著我們的樣式造人,使他們管理海裡的魚、空中的鳥、地上的牲畜,和全地,並地上所爬的一切昆蟲。」雖然上帝是創造者,祂還是把權力指派給祂最棒的創造--人類,讓他們以管家的身份管理所有的創造物。

我們看到聖經的新約也提倡自治。馬太福音10章1節告訴我們:「耶穌叫了十二個門徒來,給他們權柄,能趕逐污鬼,並醫治各樣的病症。」之後,祂要求他們對自己所經歷的提出報告。

然後在馬太福音21章,我們看到耶穌派兩個門徒先去村莊,為祂進入耶路撒冷做準備。基本上,耶穌承認若祂的企業要成功,祂在地上的影響力要存留,祂必須靠門徒的天份和熱忱去繼續這事工。聖經肯定,把自治權交給員工有許多益處:

從獨特的天份獲益。即使最好的領袖也有其極限。他們不可能有達成他們機構要完成之目標的所有技巧與能力。授予員工自治權,使他們能自由地將自己的獨特能力發揮到極至。「就如身子是一個,卻有許多肢體;而且肢體雖多,仍是一個身子…若都是一個肢體,身子在那裡呢﹖」(哥林多前書12章12-19節)

從各種不同的觀點獲益。考慮那些從不同角度看事情的觀點總是有幫助的。若讓人自由地表達他們的想法,他們可能提出領袖沒有考慮到的意見。「不先商議,所謀無效;謀士眾多,所謀乃成」(箴言15章22節)。

從自信的員工獲益。被授予自治權的人會覺得被信任,而且通常會熱切地去證明自己值得信任。「忠信的使者叫差他的人心裡舒暢,就如在收割時有冰雪的涼氣」(箴言25章13節)。

本文版權為正直資源中心(Integrity Resource Center, Inc.)所有。本文獲得授權改編自「瑞克.博克思的正直時刻Integrity Moments with Rich Boxx」。這系列的文章是以一個基督徒的觀點評論職場的正直議題。想要更多了解正直資源中心或想要收到電子文件的「瑞克每天的正直時刻Rick”s daily Integrity Moments」系列文章,請上網www.integrityresource.org

思想 / 討論題目
你是怎樣的領袖/經理?你相信員工可以自治嗎?或者你較喜歡維持直接掌控?請解釋。 若你是個向上司報告的員工--或過去曾是,你們之間的運作方式主要是自治方式或直接、專制獨裁的方式?你對這種被管理的方式有何感覺? 你覺得為何那大學的研究顯示,用自治管理的公司比強調由上向下指示的公司能有更多成長,也更能留住員工? 依你的觀點,對員工的需要展現關心,是比較好的做法嗎?為什麼?註:若你有聖經且想要看有關此主題的其他經文,請看:
列王記下2章1-12:馬太福音28章16-20節;馬可福音11章1-11節,12章28-34節;路加福音12章35-48節;約翰福音1章35-51節

WORKPLACE AUTONOMY, AS GOD INTENDED
By: Rick Boxx

Daniel Pink’s new book, "Drive," builds an interesting case for promoting autonomy at work. He defines autonomy as "acting with choice." As justification, he highlights a Cornell University study of 320 small businesses.

Of the companies the university researched, half of the businesses granted autonomy to their workers, while the other half relied on top-down direction, providing explicit executive direction while offering little freedom to employees. According to the study, the businesses that granted worker autonomy grew at a rate four times greater than that of the control-oriented firms. In addition, the companies that encouraged autonomy had an employee turnover rate of only about one-third of that in the high-control businesses.

These findings should not surprise us. They reflect how we have been designed.

In the Bible, we see that God originally established autonomy in the workplace. Genesis 1:26 teaches, "Then God said, ‘Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move along the ground.‘" Even though He was the Creator, God was delegating authority to His foremost creation, humanity, to serve as steward over all that He had made.

We see this advocacy of autonomy reflected in the Bible”s New Testament as well. Matthew 10:1 tells us, “He called his twelve disciples to him and gave them authority to drive out evil spirits and to heal every disease and sickness.” Later He asked them for a report on what they had experienced.

Then in Matthew 21, we see Jesus sending two of His disciples into the village ahead to engage in preparations for His entry into Jerusalem. Basically, Jesus was acknowledging that if His enterprise were to succeed, surviving His earthly presence, He would have to rely the talents and zeal of His followers to sustain the work. There are many benefits to extending autonomy to workers, as the Scriptures affirm:

Benefiting from unique talents. Even the best leaders are limited; they do not have all the skills or abilities necessary to achieve their organizations” goals. Granting worker autonomy frees them to use their unique capabilities to the fullest. “The body is a unit, although it is made up of many parts; and though all the parts are many, they form one body…. If they were all one part, where would the body be?…” (1 Corinthians 12:12-16).

Benefiting from diverse perspectives. It always helps to consider the perspectives of those who see issues from different angles. If given the freedom to express their opinions, they may introduce ideas the leader had not considered. “Plans fail for lack of counsel, but with many advisers they succeed” (Proverbs 15:22).

Benefiting from confident workers. People who are granted autonomy feel trusted and usually are eager to prove worthy of that trust. “Like the coolness of snow at harvest time is a trustworthy messenger to those who send him; he refreshes the spirit of his masters” (Proverbs 25:13).

Copyright 2010, Integrity Resource Center, Inc. Adapted with permission from "Integrity Moments with Rick Boxx," a commentary on issues of integrity in the workplace from a Christian perspective. To learn more about Integrity Resource Center or to sign up for Rick”s daily Integrity Moments, visit www.integrityresource.org.

Reflection/Discussion Questions
What kind of leader or manager are you? Do you believe in worker autonomy, or do you prefer to maintain direct control? Explain your answer. If you are in a reporting relationship to a supervisor – or have been in the past – which approach was utilized primarily, autonomy or a directive, autocratic style? How did you feel about the way you were managed? hy do you think the university study showed that companies grew and retained employees at a much higher rate than those that emphasized top-down direction? In your view, is one approach preferable to the other in demonstrating genuine interest in the needs and concerns of an organization”s employees? Why or why not?NOTE: If you have a Bible and would like to read more about this subject, consider the following passages:
2 Kings 2:1-12; Matthew 28:16-20; Mark 11:1-11, 12:28-34; Luke 12:35-48; John 1:35-51

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