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  主頁 » 聖經靈修 » 週一嗎哪 - 2018年 第四十九週

  
其他週一嗎哪

彼得原理的陷阱

By Rick Box

多年以前,勞倫斯‧彼得博士的書「彼得原理」(註1)引起了商界的注意。這本書集中火力討論了提升領導力的共同陷阱:如果我們不停地推崇業績高的人,最後會讓他們變成無能。換句話說,在某一方面取得成功不能保證承擔更大權力和責任時也會成功。

雖然彼得博士的書已經出版了40多年,但「彼得原理」在今天仍然適用,一昧追求業績高對個人和僱用他們的組織都不利。

「哈佛商業評論」的研究人員艾倫·本森(Alan Benson)和凱莉·孫(Kelly Shue)研究銷售人員晉升到銷售管理職位時的表現,來測試這一理論。他們發現業績很高的銷售人員往往不是好的管理者,這肯定了彼得原理。當升遷時,這些人接受這個職位來獲得額外的獎勵。他們很驕傲自己得到了一個新職位,渴望得到相關的地位或權威,而非謙卑誠實地考慮繼續精進他們的技能,或評估這個角色是否適合他們。他們也沒有意識到自己原來是「方形釘子」有可能難以適應新的「圓孔」,這會導致不必要的失敗。

例如,具有說服力和人際交往能力的人在銷售方面表現優異,但他們可能缺乏領導或管理必要的技能,可以有效應對管理和指導他人的挑戰。這種升遷可能會變成一種懲罰而不是獎勵。

將業績很好的銷售員轉換到非常不同的職位,在幾個層面都會造成很大的影響。對於一家公司來說,理想情況下,每個人應該都能在發揮專長和有發展的位置上,但不包括職位超過他們能力的人。

在體壇,不是所有出色的運動員都適合成為經理、教練或高階主管。同樣的,把某些人提升到需要不同技能和天賦的角色可能會讓他和周遭的人都感到沮喪。這些人可能在他們目前的職位上找到很大的快樂和滿足感,但若是在不適合自己的職位上就會造成悲劇。同時,他們下屬的生產力也可能受到扼殺。

聖經告訴我們要如何避免這種困境:

尋求智慧,辨別如何最好、最大地利用人的才幹和能力。 有效率的領導者會去了解為他們工作的人 ,包括他們的技能、興趣、目標和限制。並且在升遷時考慮以上所有因素才做決定。「你要詳細知道你羊群的景況,留心料理你的牛群;因為資財不能永有,冠冕豈能存到萬代?」(箴言27章23節)。

不要讓驕傲或野心誤導你的職涯。的確,卓越應該得到認可和獎勵。「你看見辦事殷勤的人嗎?他必站在君王面前,必不站在下賤人面前」(箴言22章29節)。然而,野心和對認同的慾望可能對決定職涯造成不良的影響。箴言29章23節教導我們:「人的高傲必使他卑下;心裏謙遜的,必得尊榮。

如果你希望自己的工作得到尊榮,請專注在你最擅長的事,並且要求您的公司適當地獎勵你的成功。

註1:《彼得原理》(英語:Peter Principle)是管理學勞倫斯·彼得在1969年出版的一本同名書,裡面提出的「彼得原理」是指:在組織企業的等級制度中,人會因其某種特質或特殊技能,令他在被擢升到不能勝任的職位,相反變成組織的障礙物(冗員)及負資產[1]。《彼得原理》解釋了人力資源中的級際競爭,原理中帶有黑色幽默,但是也是很現實的。

(資料來源:維基百科https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%BD%BC%E5%BE%97%E5%8E
%9F%E7%90%86)

版權所有2018  非傳統商業網路(前身為純全資源中心)。節錄自和Rick Boxx的純全時刻,這本刊物主要是從基督徒的角度來探討職場上正直這個主題。如果希望知道更多關於這個事工或是想訂閱每日純全時刻,請上這個網站: www.unconventionalbusiness.org. Rick Boxx最新出版的書提供用五個關鍵的神的方法來建立企業。

反省與問題討論

  1. 當你聽到「彼得原理」的時候,會先想到甚麼?
  2. 在工作的職場上你曾聽說過「彼得原理」嗎? 它曾經影響你或你的工作夥伴嗎?解釋你的答案。
  3. 你覺得把人推向無能,或者比較委婉地說是超過他們的能力的結果是甚麼?。
  4. 一個優秀的領導者如何能夠辨別出公司中業績高的人應該獲得升遷,或者他們因為現在工作得到認可和獎勵但是應該待在同樣的職位?同樣的,身為業績很好的員工,自己要如何分辨自己在目前的工作中做得很好的時候,誠實地評估自己是否應該接受升遷?

備註: 如果你手上有聖經希望閱讀更多和這個主題相關的經文,請參考: (因經文較長,考慮到篇幅和新舊約經文,您可以參閱下列未列出的經文:箴言11:12、12:9)

箴言15章33節

15:33 敬畏耶和華是智慧的訓誨;尊榮以前,必有謙卑。

箴言16章18節

16:18驕傲在敗壞以先;狂心在跌倒之前。

羅馬書12章3-8節

12:3 我憑著所賜我的恩對你們各人說:不要看自己過於所當看的;要照著 神所分給各人信心的大小,看得合乎中道。

12:4 正如我們一個身子上有好些肢體,肢體也不都是一樣的用處。

12:5 我們這許多人,在基督裏成為一身,互相聯絡作肢體,也是如此。

12:6 按我們所得的恩賜,各有不同。或說預言,就當照著信心的程度說預言;

12:7 或作執事,就當專一執事;或作教導的,就當專一教導;

12:8 或作勸化的,就當專一勸化;施捨的,就當誠實;治理的,就當殷勤;憐憫人的,就當甘心。

哥林多前書12:12-26

12:12 就如身子是一個,卻有許多肢體;而且肢體雖多,仍是一個身子;基督也是這樣。

12:13 我們不拘是猶太人,是希臘人,是為奴的,是自主的,都從一位聖靈受洗,成了一個身體,飲於一位聖靈。

12:14 身子原不是一個肢體,乃是許多肢體。

12:15 設若腳說:「我不是手,所以不屬乎身子,」它不能因此就不屬乎身子。

12:16 設若耳說:「我不是眼,所以不屬乎身子,」它不能因此就不屬乎身子。

12:17 若全身是眼,從哪裏聽聲呢?若全身是耳,從哪裏聞味呢?

12:18 但如今, 神隨自己的意思把肢體俱各安排在身上了。

12:19 若都是一個肢體,身子在哪裏呢?

12:20 但如今肢體是多的,身子卻是一個。

12:21 眼不能對手說:「我用不著你。」頭也不能對腳說:「我用不著你。」

12:22 不但如此,身上肢體人以為軟弱的,更是不可少的。

12:23 身上肢體,我們看為不體面的,越發給它加上體面;不俊美的,越發得著俊美。

12:24 我們俊美的肢體,自然用不著裝飾;但 神配搭這身子,把加倍的體面給那有缺欠的肢體,

12:25 免得身上分門別類,總要肢體彼此相顧。

12:26 若一個肢體受苦,所有的肢體就一同受苦;若一個肢體得榮耀,所有的肢體就一同快樂。


PITFALLS OF THE ‘PETER PRINCIPLE’

By Rick Boxx

Years ago, the business world became captivated by a book called The Peter Principle, authored by Dr. Laurence J. Peter. The book focused on an common pitfall of leadership advancement: If we continually promote high performers, we will eventually advance them to a level of incompetence. In other words, success in one level of endeavor does not guarantee success in levels of greater authority and responsibility.

Even though Dr. Peter’s book was first published more than 40 years ago, this “Peter Principle” continues being practiced today, often to the detriment of individuals and the organizations that employ them. According to the Harvard Business Review, researchers Alan Benson and Kelly Shue tested this theory by studying how well sales people performed when promoted to sales management positions.

Benson and Shue discovered high-performing salespeople often were not good managers, affirming the Peter Principle. When offered a promotion, some people accept it for the additional compensation that comes with it. Or they take the new position out of pride, desiring status or authority that goes with it, rather than to humbly and honestly consider their skill sets, evaluating whether the proposed role would be the best fit for them. Failing to perceive they could become “square pegs” struggling to fit into “round holes” can lead to unnecessary failure.

For instance, people whose persuasive and people skills enable them to excel in sales might lack the necessary leadership or administrative skills to effectively handle the challenges of managing and directing others. Such a promotion could prove to be more of a penalty than a reward.

The consequences of moving high performers into very different new roles are significant on several levels. For a company, ideally every individual would be situated in positions where they can both excel and thrive. The adage about a chain being only as strong as its weakest link applies to people being promoted beyond their capabilities.

In sports, not all stellar athletes are suited to experience equal success as managers, coaches or sports executives. Similarly, promoting someone to a role that requires different skills and gifts can prove frustrating for everyone. Some individuals may find great joy and fulfillment in their current position, but become miserable in another role for which they are ill-suited. At the same time, those assigned to report to them could become stifled in their own productivity.

The Bible offers insight into how to avoid this dilemma:

Seek wisdom to discern how best to utilize people’s talents and abilities. Effective leaders learn to understand the people who work for them – their skills, interests, goals and limitations. Advancement decisions should be made with all of those factors in mind. Be sure you know the condition of your flocks, give careful attention to your herds” (Proverbs 27:23).

Do not let pride or ambition misdirect your career. Without question, excellence should be recognized and rewarded. “Do you see a man skilled in his work? He will serve before kings; he will not serve before obscure men” (Proverbs 22:29). However, ambition and the desire for recognition can lead to poor career decisions. Proverbs 29:23 teaches, “A man’s pride will bring him low, but a humble spirit will obtain honor.”

If you desire honor for your work, concentrate on what you do best and ask your company to reward your successes appropriately.

Copyright 2018, Unconventional Business Network. Adapted with permission from "Integrity Moments with Rick Boxx," a commentary on issues of integrity in the workplace from a Christian perspective. To learn more visit www.unconventionalbusiness.org. His latest book and inspiration for their new ministry name, Unconventional Business, provides “Five Keys to Growing a Business God’s Way.”

Reflection/Discussion Questions

  1. When you hear the term “Peter Principle,” what comes to your mind?
  2. Have you seen this Peter Principle in action during your work experience? Has it ever directly affected you, or people with whom you have worked? Explain your answer.
  3. What are some of the consequences of promoting people “to their levels of incompetence”? Or to state it a bit more kindly, beyond their levels of competence?
  4. How can a good leader discern whether a high performer in the company is suited to receive a promotion, or should just be recognized and rewarded for their work and remain in the same position? Similarly, how can someone honestly evaluate whether they should accept a promotion if offered, when they are highly effective in the work they are currently doing?

NOTE: If you have a Bible and would like to read more about this subject, consider the following passages:     Proverbs 11:2, 12:9, 15:33, 16:18; Romans 12:3-8; 1 Corinthians 12:12-26


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